William Anderson Smith in 1891 and 1901

I left my account of the census information with the household of 1881, despite having discovered that William was alive for another two censuses, simply because at the time I couldn’t find him!
However, a little further tweaking has produced:
W Anderson Smith, 48, Head, Literature & Journalist, Rugarve Cottage, Ardchattan, Argyll, b. Perth
Mary Anderson Smith, 54, Wife, b. Cromarty
Mary Craig Sutherland, 20, Daughter, b. Inverness
Henry Torcuil Smith, 15, Scholar, b. Garston,
Bessie Anne Napier Smith, 13, Scholar, b. Glasgow
Margaret Elizabeth Gillespie, 32, General Servant, b. Knoydart, Inverness-shire
Rhugarbh, to give it its Gaelic spelling, has proved fairly elusive to locate with precision but it appears to have been between Barcaldine School House Barcaldine Old Schoolhouse and Barcaldine Mill.as seen on this map.
On the subject of language, I was slightly surprised to see that in this census return William definitely states in the column for ‘Gaelic, or G&E’ the single word ‘English’ and yet the whole of the remainder of the household are listed as having both languages. Presumably he never ‘got the Gaelic’, but allowed his offspring to learn their mother’s tongue.
Incidentally, this recent article may be of interest: http://ardchattan.org.uk/news/2009/12/15/benderloch-notes-from-the-west-highlands/
Walter Bennett, 44, Head, Compositor (Print), 6 Bond St, Clerkenwell, Finsbury, b. St Andrew’s, Holborn
William A Smith, 58, Pressman, b. Perth, Scotland
As was the case with one of the earlier censuses, I cannot be absolutely certain that this is our man, but he’s the best fit and, I think, a pretty good one, too!
This Bond Street, in Clerkenwell, London, was renamed Cruikshank Street in 1938. A full account of the history may be read in the 2008 Survey of London.  I hope this brief look at William Anderson Smith in the censuses has been of some interest, it’s certainly ended a fair distance from Carloway in Lewis, and I do wonder what William and Walter were working on at the time?

William Anderson Smith (1844-1906), author of "Lewsiana; or Life in the Outer Hebrides … With illustrations" 1875

I have been reading a book which I found thanks to the British Library having placed over one million images on the Flickr photographic site, including this one.of beehive dwellings and summer shielings.
Incidentally, the library catalogue shows eight books authored by William Anderson Smith, published between 1874 and 1892.
I don’t intend providing an in-depth review of the book itself – suffice to say the tone is very much of its time, but it does inadvertently supply some useful snippets of information along the way. What did intrigue me, however, was what I discovered when I began seeking William Anderson Smith in the census records:
John Smith, 51, Writer and Arithmeter, Ivy Bank, Kinnoull, Perthshire, b. Glasgow
Jane H Smith, 46, Wife, b. Greenock
William Anderson Smith, 8, Scholar, b. Perth
It is worth noting that the young William, fourth of six children listed at this time, was the son of a writer.
William Smith, 18, Lodger, Mercantile Clerk, 38 Hill St, Blythswood, Glasgow Barony, b. Perth
I cannot be certain that this is our man, but he is the closest match that I can find and the ‘dropping’ of his second name would be perfectly compatible with his status as a lodger – with census information we are relying upon what the person who provided the information knew, or could remembder, about the members of their household.
William Anderson Smith, 29, Head, Cod Liver Oil Manufacturer, Part of Carloway House, Carloway, Ross & Cromarty b. Perth
Now, Comann Eachdraidh Uig (Uig Historical Society) have several pieces devoted to William Anderson Smith, but I cannot see any reference to his most unusual occupation! I say that because, as far as I can ascertain, he is the sole ‘Cod Liver Oil Manufacturer’ to be recorded in Ross-shire in any census from 1841 to 1901 inclusive. I wonder how successful this venture was? This piece from the society’s site makes for interesting reading: http://www.ceuig.co.uk/history/land/the-maladministration-of-the-lews-1886/
William Anderson Smith, 38, Head, Oyster Culturalist Journalist and Author, Rhugarve Cottage, Ardchattan, Argyll, b. Perth
Mary A Smith, 43, Wife, b. Cromarty
John D Sutherland, 15, Land Agent Assistant, b. Inverness
Mary Craig Sutherland, 9, Stepdaughter, b. Inverness
Henry Torcuil Smith, 5, b. England
Bessie A N Smith, 3, b. Glasgow
Mary MacGillivray, 18, Servant, b. G, Inverness-shire
Here we see the mature William with wife and family. It would appear from the information in his death certificate, that Mary was his second wife. I am unclear as to whether the Sutherland children are from William’s first marriage or whether they were his step-children, too. I could investigate in Scotland’s People but that’s for another day…
William Anderson Smith died on 22 July 1906 at the age of 62. He had been married firstly to Elizabeth Morgan and then to Mary Hoach, or Sutherland.

His late father’s occupation is given as some kind of writing master, I write ‘some kind’ because, unfortunately, I cannot make out the writing.

Renting islands in the Sound of Harris (and Taransay) 1895-1920

I have examined the Valuation Rolls to see what information they might have to tell us about these places, some of which were rented by various relatives of mine from the end of the nineteenth century for a period of about eighty years.
I’ve put the known relatives in boldfor added clarity, but have also used italic bold for a few whose identities I have yet to absolutely confirm!
1895 – Proprietor: The Trustees of The Earl of Dunmore
House and Farm, Borve, Berneray, Roderick Campbell, merchant, Strond, Obbe, Harris, £80
Lands, Island of Torogay etc, John Campbell, Strond, Obbe, Harris £30
Lands, Islands of Killigray and Langa, John Stewart, Ensay, £70
House and Farm, Rodel, Rod. Campbell, merchant, Obbe, £98
Plantation Park, Rodel, John Campbell, Strond, £12
This was the year before John Campbell married my cousin Marion Kerr. Why they were wed in the Free Church at Lonemore, Duirinish, Skye, rather than in Harris, isn’t entirely clear to me.
The Campbells were living in Strond at this time and paying a total of £220 in rent, including £30 for the use of the islands in the Sound of Harris off the coast of North Uist which appear above as Ísland of Torogay etc’.
1905 – Proprietor: The Right Hon. Alexander Edward Murray, Viscount fincastle.
Lands, Island of Torogay etc, John Campbell, farmer, Rodel, £20
Lands, Islands of Killiegray & Langa, Major William Stewart of Ensay, £70
House and Farm, Rodel, Rod. Campbell, farmer, Rodel £98
Plantation Park, Rodel, John Campbell, farmer, Rodel £12
House and Farm, Kylis, Roderick Macdonald, Merchant, £30
House and Farm, Island Taransay, John Campbell, farmer, Rodel, £150
House and Farm, Scaristaveg, Roderick Macleay, £80
House and Farm, Scaristavore, Roderick Campbell, £130
House and Farm, Borvebeg, Roderick Campbell, £65
Land, Isle Sursay, Roderick Campbell, £7
Estate Office, Obbe, Thomas Wilson, factor, £8
Post Office, House and Land, Obbe, Widow Mary Galbraith, £1 16s
By 1901 the people of Borve, Berneray had finally been able to return to the land that had been taken from them in the clearance of 1853. However, in 1905 John Campbell was still renting the islands in the Sound and doing so for ten pounds a year less than he had been paying a decade earlier! He and his father were now paying £130 for the use of those islands and the farm at Rodel, and an additional £150 for renting Taransay which John Campbell now farmed.
What is not completely clear to me is whether the Roderick Campbell paying £202 for the farms at Scaristavore and Borvebeg (plus the island of Sursay) is the same Roderick Campbell?
1915 – Proprietor: The Right Hon. The Earl of Dunmore
Lands, Vaccasay etc, Reps of Roderick Campbell, £10
Lands, Islands of Killiegray and Langa, Donald Alexander Stewart of Lochdu, Nairn, £70
House and Farm, Rodel, Ken Campbell, farmer, Rodel, £34
Plantation Park Lands, Rodel, Ken Campbell, farmer, Rodel (£37 10s for)
Islands of Torogay, Opsay etc, Ken Campbell, farmer, Rodel (both holdings)
Cottage and Farm, Island Taransay, John Campbell, Taransay, £140
Cottage and Farm, Scaristaveg, Roderick Macleay, £75
Cottage and Farm, Scaristavore, Mrs Euphemia Campbell, £120
Cottage and Farm, Borvebeg, Proprietor, £56
Land, Island of Sursay, Mrs Euphemia Campbell, £7
John Campbell was now focussed entirely upon Taransay, which he was renting for £10 less than he was paying a decade earlier, whilst his younger brother Ken had Rodel and some of islands in the Sound of Harris for which paid £71 10shillings. Why ‘Vaccasay etc’ have been separated and are being rented by his father’s representatives is unclear, but I assume that the estate had decided to split the islands into two groups?
A second point that I would like to completely confirm at some point is whether Mrs Euphemia Campbell was the second wife of Roderick Campbell, farmer at Rodel. If so,then she was Euphemia MacLennan from Finsbay, Harris; and John Campbell and Ken Campbell were her stepsons, having been born to Lizzie MacRae whose father Kenneth MacRae came from Kintail in Ross-shire.
1920 – Proprietor: The Lewis and Harris Welfare and Development Coy. Ltd.
Lands, Vaccasay, Hulmetray etc, Mrs Euphemia Campbell, widow, £10
Lands, The islands of Killigray and Langa, The Earl of Dunmore, £70
House and Farm, Rodel and islands, Ken Campbell, farmer, Rodel, £71 10s
Cottage and Farm, Island Taransay, John Campbell, £140
Cottage and Farm, Scaristaveg, Roderick Macleay, £75
Cottage and Farm, Scaristavore, Mrs Euphemia Campbell, £120
Land, Island Sursay, Mrs Euphemia Campbell, £7
John Campbell continued to live in and farm Taransay, his brother remained at Rodel and I think the fact that some of the islands in the Sound (‘Vaccasay, Hulmetray etc’) were being rented by (apparently) the same Mrs Euphemia Campbell who continued to farm Scaristavore suggests that she was indeed their stepmother. I imagine that the islands that Ken Campbell was renting as part of ‘Rodel and islands’ were those in the vicinity of Torogay?
A century ago the Campbells were paying nearly £350 in rent to the Earl of Dunmore, actively farming at Rodel, at Scaristavore and in Taransay, and renting all the islands in the Sound off the coast of North Uist.

Something in the air (or, perhaps, underwater!)?

It is strange how events, without planning or deliberate intervention, sometimes coincide:

I posted an entry on this blog on Thu 28 Nov, musing upon the recent publication of results regarding sea levels around the British Isles. .

Today, by chance, I happened upon a news entry that had been posted on the Wessex Archaeology site on Fri 29 Nov – Palaeogeographical Reconstructions – regarding a wonderful poster that they have produced detailing sea level changes around the coasts of the Sound of Harris!

The poster may be viewed online or downloaded as a pdf.
It looks fascinating, as well as very attractive, and I hope you find it so, too.

Neil Morrison – The Pabbay Bard

I thought it would be interesting to have a look at what the census information has to tell us about the life of Neil Morrison, the ‘Pabbay Bard’:
Kenneth Morrison, 70, Ag Lab, Scarista, b. Inverness
Marion Morrison, 70, b. Inverness
Neil Morrison, 25, Shepherd, b. Inverness
We find the bard living with his parents in Scarista at the time of the 1841 census. According to George Henderson, in his book  ‘Leabhar nan Gleann’, Neil Morrison spent the middle segment of his working life, “…at Scarista, with Mr Macdonald…”so whether he was in fact already working for ‘Mr Macdonald’ at this time or not isn’t clear to me.
Neil Morrison, 34, Shepherd, Luskintire, b. Harris
Rachel Morrison, 29, Wife, b. Kilmuir, Inverness-shire
Janet Morrison, 3, Daughter, b. Harris
Donald Morrison, 1, Son, b. Harris
Donald Morrison, 15, Servant, b. Harris
Kenneth Morrison, 96, Pauper Formerly Farmer and Merchant, b. Harris
Marion Morrison, 90, Mother, Pauper’s Wife, b. Harris
Mary McLennan, 30, Daughter(?), Occasional House Servant, b. Harris
A decade later he was in Luskentire and, presumably, shepherding on the farm of Luskentire. His Skye-born wife, Rachel, had borne him two children and he appeared to be supporting his very elderly parents at this time, too.
Neil Morrison, 46, Shepherd, Cleit na Duthcha, b. Harris
Rachel Morrison, 37, Shepherd’s Wife, b. Kilmuir
Janet Morrison, 12, Daughter, b. Harris
Donald Morrison, 11, Son, b. Harris
Marion Morrison, 7, Daughter, b. Harris
Christina Morrison, 5, Daughter, b. Kilmuir, Invernessshire
Catherine MacPherson, 19, General Servant, b. Kilmuir, Invernessshire
Catherine McDermid, 17, General Servant, b. Harris
Neil morrison’s family has doubled to four, the last child having been born in his wife’s own birthplace of Kilmuir in Skye.
According to George Henderson this time spent in Cleit na Duthca “…with Mr MacRae, a son of Maigstir Fionnladh, a former minister of North Uist…” came at the start of Neil Morrison’s career but as Finlay MacRae died on 15 May 1858 then this may indeed be the correct episode?
What is perhaps worth remarking upon, is that this ‘Mr MacRae’ had an aunt living in Harris, for the Rev Finlay MacRae’s sister, Isabella, was married to James Robertson Macdonald, the Factor of Harris who was responsible for overseeing several Clearances during the Dunmore family’s ownership of the estate.
Neil Morrison, 56, Shepherd, Pabbay, b. Harris
Rachel Morrison, 48, Wife, b. Skye, Invernessshire
Marion Morrison, 16, Daughter, b. Harris
Christy Morrison, 14, Daughter, b. Harris
John MacDonald, 30, Visitor, Ag Lab, b. Boreray
This is the only time that we have the ‘Pabbay Bard’ recorded living in Pabbay and Bill Lawson suggests that he probably was working in the island between 1863 and 1873.
George Henderson remarks that Neil Morrison spent the final phase of his career “…in the Isle of Pabbay, with Stewart of Ensay…”. This was John Stewart, son of Donald Stewart, Factor, farmer and the main figure behind the Clearances in Harris http://direcleit.blogspot.co.uk/2011/02/stewarts-of-pairc-luskentyre-ensay.html
Donald Morrison, 32, Shepherd, South Harris ED1, b. Harris
Mary Morrison, 30, Shepherd’s Wife, b. Loch Broom, Ross-shire
Murdo Morrison, 3, Son, b. Loch Broom
Neil Morrison, 1, Son, b. Harris
Neil Morrison, 64, Father, Shepherd, b. Harris
Our final glimpse of the bard finds him somewhere within Enumeration District 1 of South Harris and I do not, at present, know where the boundaries of that district were. The bard was living with his son Donald, who was a shepherd, and his wife Mary. She had made Neil a grandfather twice over, the first boy, Murdo, having been born in her birthplace, Loch Broom, and the second, named Neil after his grandfather, had been born in Harris.
I think it is interesting to note that this township bard was shepherding for at least two families intimately connected with the clearances that occurred in the nineteenth century in both Harris and in North Uist and I hope that these five small snapshots, and my brief comments, add something to our knowledge of his life.

GAELIC TOWNSHIP BARDS:  AN INTRODUCTION TO THEIR SONGS AND FUNCTIONS” by Donald E. Meek  http://meekwrite.blogspot.co.uk/2013/04/gaelic-verse-and-song-gaelic-township.html

‘Harris in History and Legend’ by Bill Lawson (2002)